‘The vicious circle’: communist cartooning, internationalism & print culture, 1917-25

Spring 2017

In September 1921, the President of the Communist International, Grigorii Zinoviev, wrote to its national sections on ‘The Character of our Newspapers’. The circular was a supplement to the ‘Theses on Organisation’ revised and adopted at the third world congress that July. They provided Moscow’s first practical guidance for a ‘new type of communist organ’ based on the Bolshevik daily, Pravda. ‘Newspapers play a great part in our agitation’, Zinoviev stated, but ‘up till now have been very unsatisfactory.’ ‘Our papers are too dry, too abstract’, he continued, containing ‘very little’ of interest to working men and women.

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Twentieth Century Communism Journal Issue 12: Communism and the written word